A human ear with an infection

How to Treat an Ear Infection

Ear infections can be a painful and uncomfortable experience, especially when left untreated. They commonly affect children, but adults can also get them. Knowing how to properly treat an ear infection can help alleviate the symptoms and promote healing. In this article, we’ll go over the causes, symptoms, and types of ear infections, along with some home remedies and medical treatments that can help.

Understanding Ear Infections

An ear infection occurs when there is an inflammation or infection in the ear. Most often, it affects the middle ear – the space behind the eardrum. They can occur in one or both ears and can be acute or chronic. Acute ear infections come on quickly and typically go away on their own within a few days to a week. Chronic ear infections can last for months or even years and may cause hearing loss or other complications if left untreated.

Causes of Ear Infections

Ear infections are usually caused by bacteria or viruses that enter the middle ear. They can occur after a cold or flu, when there is a buildup of fluid in the ear, or due to allergies, smoking, or exposure to pollutants. In some cases, ear infections can also be caused by a blockage in the Eustachian tube, which connects the middle ear to the back of the throat. This blockage can prevent fluid from draining properly, leading to an infection.

Symptoms of Ear Infections

The symptoms of an ear infection can vary depending on the severity and type of infection. Common symptoms include ear pain, hearing loss, fever, fluid draining from the ear, and trouble sleeping or eating. In some cases, children may also tug at their ears or have difficulty balancing.

It is important to note that not all ear infections cause symptoms. In fact, some people may have an ear infection without even realizing it. This is especially common in young children, who may not be able to communicate their discomfort.

Types of Ear Infections

There are three main types of ear infections – otitis externa, otitis media, and otitis interna. Otitis externa is an infection of the outer ear and ear canal, while otitis media is an infection of the middle ear. Otitis interna is an infection of the inner ear, which can affect hearing and balance.

Otitis externa, also known as swimmer’s ear, is often caused by water that remains in the ear after swimming or bathing. This moisture can create a breeding ground for bacteria, leading to an infection. Symptoms of otitis externa include redness and swelling of the ear canal, itching, and discharge.

Otitis media is the most common type of ear infection, especially in young children. It occurs when the Eustachian tube becomes blocked, trapping fluid in the middle ear. This fluid can become infected, leading to inflammation and pain. Symptoms of otitis media include ear pain, fever, and difficulty hearing.

Otitis interna, also known as labyrinthitis, is a rare but serious type of ear infection. It occurs when the inner ear becomes inflamed, affecting both hearing and balance. Symptoms of otitis interna include dizziness, vertigo, and hearing loss.

If you suspect that you or your child has an ear infection, it is important to seek medical attention. Your doctor can diagnose the type of infection and recommend appropriate treatment, which may include antibiotics or pain relievers.

Home Remedies for Ear Infections

While some ear infections may require medical treatment, there are a few home remedies that can help alleviate the symptoms and promote healing. Here are a few options to try:

Warm Compress

Applying a warm compress to the affected ear can help relieve pain and reduce inflammation. The warmth increases blood flow to the area, which can help the body fight off the infection. You can use a warm washcloth or a heating pad set on low. Be sure not to make it too hot and avoid using a heating pad on infants or young children.

In addition to a warm compress, it can also be helpful to rest and avoid activities that may cause further irritation to the ear. This can include avoiding loud noises, wearing earplugs, and refraining from swimming or diving.

Over-the-Counter Pain Relievers

Over-the-counter pain relievers like acetaminophen or ibuprofen can help reduce pain and fever associated with an ear infection. Always follow the recommended dosage and talk to a doctor before giving medication to children.

In addition to pain relievers, it can also be helpful to stay hydrated and get plenty of rest. This can help boost the immune system and promote healing.

Salt or Rice Heating Pads

A homemade heating pad made with salt or rice can help relieve pain and pressure in the ear. Simply heat up a cloth bag filled with salt or rice in the microwave for a minute or two, and apply it to the ear for 10-15 minutes. The warmth can help soothe the ear and promote relaxation.

In addition to a heating pad, it can also be helpful to practice relaxation techniques such as deep breathing or meditation. This can help reduce stress and promote overall wellness.

Garlic Oil Drops

Garlic has antibacterial and antiviral properties that can help fight off infections. To make garlic oil drops, warm up a few tablespoons of olive oil and add a crushed garlic clove. Let it sit for 5-10 minutes, strain out the garlic, and use a dropper to put a few drops into the affected ear. Garlic oil drops can be used once or twice a day, and may take a few days to show results.

In addition to garlic oil drops, it can also be helpful to eat a healthy diet rich in vitamins and minerals. This can help boost the immune system and promote overall health.

Hydrogen Peroxide

Hydrogen peroxide can help clear out any excess earwax that may be contributing to the infection. Mix equal parts of hydrogen peroxide and water, and use a dropper to put a few drops into the ear. Let it sit for a few minutes and then tilt your head to let the solution drain out of the ear. It is important to use caution when using hydrogen peroxide, as it can be irritating to the skin and eyes.

In addition to using hydrogen peroxide, it can also be helpful to practice good hygiene habits such as washing your hands frequently and avoiding contact with others who may be sick. This can help prevent the spread of infection.

While home remedies can be helpful in relieving symptoms and promoting healing, it is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen. A doctor can provide a proper diagnosis and recommend appropriate treatment.

Medical Treatments for Ear Infections

Ear infections are a common ailment, especially in children. They can cause discomfort, pain, and even hearing loss if left untreated. While home remedies can be effective, sometimes medical treatment is necessary. Here are some treatment options that a doctor may recommend:


Antibiotics are a common treatment for ear infections caused by bacteria. These medications work by killing the bacteria that are causing the infection. It’s important to take the full course of antibiotics to fully eliminate the infection and avoid antibiotic resistance. Your doctor may prescribe oral antibiotics or eardrops, depending on the severity of the infection.

Ear Drops

Ear drops containing antibiotic or antifungal medication can be used to treat an ear infection. They should be administered as directed by a doctor. These drops work by delivering medication directly to the infected area, which can help to reduce inflammation and swelling.

Pain Medication

If the pain associated with an ear infection is severe, a doctor may recommend prescription pain medication to alleviate discomfort. Over-the-counter pain relievers like acetaminophen or ibuprofen can also be effective at reducing pain and fever.


Steroids may be prescribed to reduce inflammation and swelling in the ear. They can be taken orally or injected into the ear. These medications work by suppressing the immune system’s response to the infection, which can help to reduce symptoms like pain and swelling.

Surgery (in severe cases)

In rare cases, surgery may be necessary to treat a severe or chronic ear infection. This may involve draining fluid from the ear, repairing a perforated eardrum, or removing infected tissue. Your doctor will only recommend surgery if other treatments have been unsuccessful or if there is a risk of complications.

It’s important to seek medical treatment if you suspect you or your child has an ear infection. Left untreated, ear infections can lead to complications like hearing loss or the spread of infection to other parts of the body. With prompt and appropriate treatment, however, most ear infections can be successfully treated.


Ear infections can be a painful and uncomfortable experience, but they can usually be treated with home remedies or medical treatment. If you or your child is experiencing symptoms of an ear infection, it’s important to see a doctor for proper diagnosis and treatment. With the right care, most ear infections will clear up within a few days to a week.